Friday, September 25, 2009

三名女子的真事,一名女子的狂想 (四)

1955年12月1日,Montgomery, Alabama,42 歲女裁縫Rosa Parks,下班後搭乘巴士回家.

當年Montgomery的公營巴士實行種族隔離法,坐位分成三種,最前段是white only,最後段是black only,中間為”灰區”,規則是:當黑區坐滿了,而白區還有空位,黑人可以坐進灰區,但如果白區坐滿了,坐在灰區的黑人必需讓位給白人.不單如此,“讓座”的黑人,又不得站在白人旁邊,必須站到黑區之內.假若黑區坐位企位均滿,黑人便需下車,離開巴士.

By the way,these are not fixed section. Bus drivers can move the signs around as they deem “fit”, or remove it altogether.

Rosa Parks上車後,坐在灰區內的最後空位上。過了第三站,白區滿座,一名白人站在車廂中.巴士司機喝令坐在灰區的四名黑人讓座,並揚言他們正坐於白區內.三名黑人猶豫一刻,紛紛讓座,站到黑區.坐在Aisle seat的Rosa Parks,卻只是坐到旁邊的Window seat之上.

Bus Driver “Why don't you stand up??”
Rosa Parks “I don't think I should have to stand up..”
Bus Driver “Well, if you don't stand up, I'm going to have to call the police and have you arrested.”
Rosa Parks “You may do that.”

如是者,Rosa Parks被捕,被控違反Montgomery種族隔離法, 由此引發了Martin Luther King領導的聯合抵制蒙哥馬利公共汽車運動. 運動從1955年12月1日持續到1956年12月20日(382天),成為50-60年代遍及美國的民權運動起點。

此外,在Fred Gray, E.D. Nixon 及 Clifford Durr三名律師努了下,找回數名曾因違反”巴士規則” 被控以Civil Disobedience 的黑人女士,協助她們以民事訴訟形式,控告當時Montgomery市長Gayle,於1956年獲得勝訴,為公營巴士的種族隔離劃上句號.

Rosa Parks 的小堅持,雖然觸發了改寫歷史的一章,可她本人在事發後一直無法找到工作,丈夫亦因被老闆禁止談論太太或官司而黯然辭工,後來全家更需搬離Montgomery找生計,直到1965 年於Detroit被眾議院John Conyers受聘為Receptionist後,生活才穩定下來.

Rosa Parks 於零五年十月廿四日辭世,享年九十三. 前美國總統克林頓在她喪禮上致辭說:

“I remember as if it were yesterday that fateful day 50 years ago. I was a nine-year-old Southern white boy who rode a segregated bus every single day of my life. I sat in the front. Black folk sat in the back. When Rosa showed us that black folks didn’t have to sit in the back anymore, two of my friends and I who strongly approved of what she had done decided we didn’t have to sit in the front anymore. It was just a tiny gesture by three ordinary kids, but that tiny gesture was repeated over and over again, millions and millions of times in the hearts and minds of children, their parents, their grandparents, their great grandparents, proving that she did help to set us all free.

That great civil rights song that Nina Simone did so well: “I wish I knew how it would feel to be free, I wish I could break all the chains holding me, I wish I could fly like a bird in the sky.” The end says, “I wish that you knew how it feels to be me. Then you’d see and agree that everyone should be free.” Now that our friend, Rosa Parks, has gone on to her just reward, now that she has gone home and left us behind, let us never forget that in that simple act and a lifetime of grace and dignity, she showed us every single day what it means to be free. She made us see and agree that everyone should be free. God bless you, Rosa. God bless you.”

Rosa Parks - Wikipedia
Rosa Parks Interview - Academy Of Achievement
Transcript of Bill Clinton speaking on Rosa Parks Funeral
My Story - Rosa Parks Biography


篤篤篤撐 said...

千里之行, 始於足下.
當年一個頲女人的堅持, 不知不覺中改變了全世界
今日, 我都o甘鼓勵自己, 亦希望hk人 o甘樣睇自己

Anonymous said...

we in hk are too used to taking things for granted. only if there were more Rosa Parks in this tiny island...


iurgir said...

Funny to discover now that the song by lighthouse family, this, that I used to hear so much was a cover. Nice lyrics anyhow.

Clicky Web Analytics